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Die neuen MaRisk 7.0

Die neuen MaRisk 7.0 – was ändert sich?

  • Vorstände und Geschäftsführer bei Finanzunternehmen
  • Führungskräfte und Spezialisten aus den Bereichen Treasury und Risikocontrolling

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    • MaRisk-Update: Was sich ändert und warum?

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    Die neuen MaRisk 7.0 – was ändert sich?

    Was sind die wesentlichen Anforderungen der MaRisk 6.0 an das Risikomanagement?

    Haupttreiber der letzten Überarbeitung waren Änderungen der internationalen Regelsetzung. Mit der aktuellen MaRisk-Novelle wurden die Leitlinien der EBA zu notleidenden und gestundeten Risikopositionen (Guidelines on management of non-performing and forborne exposures – NPE Guidelines) sowie zu Auslagerungen (Guidelines on outsourcing arrangements – Outsourcing Guidelines) sowie zum ICT Risk (Guidelines on ICT and Security Risk Management – ICT Guidelines) umgesetzt. 

    Die NPE Guidelines unterscheiden zwischen notleidenden Krediten (non-performing loans, NPLs) und notleidenden Risikopositionen (non-performing exposures, NPEs). Diese Unterscheidung wird in die MaRisk übernommen:

    • Während der eine Begriff auf die Kategorisierung der Institute zielt, definiert der andere den Anwendungsbereich der erhöhten Anforderungen.
    • Für die Einstufung eines Institutes als Institut mit hohem NPL-Bestand ist ausschlaggebend, ob das Institut die Quote notleidender Kredite (brutto) von 5 % oder mehr überschreitet.
    • Bei Überschreitung dieser Quote erstreckt sich der Anwendungsbereich der erhöhten Anforderungen auf das Management von notleidenden Risikopositionen (NPEs).

    Neu sind auch die umfassenden Anforderungen zu Forbearance. Dabei umfasst Forbearance jede Art von Zugeständnissen, die Kreditnehmern aufgrund sich abzeichnender oder bereits eingetretener finanzieller Schwierigkeiten gemacht werden. Kreditinstitute sollen solide Forbearance-Prozesse einrichten sowie eine Forbearance-Richtlinie entwickeln.
    Darüber hinaus werden Anforderungen zur Erfassung notleidender Risikopositionen (z. B. in robusten IT-Systemen), Wertminderungen und Abschreibungen (z. B. rechtzeitige Erfassung von Wertminderungen) zur Bewertung von Sicherheiten (z. B. Anforderungen an Wertgutachter) sowie zu Rettungserwerben präzisiert und ergänzt.

    Ebenso detaillierte Anforderungen wurden aus den Outsourcing Guidelines in Abschnitt AT 9 umgesetzt. Die Änderungen betreffen den gesamten Auslagerungszyklus. So wurden Anforderungen zur Risikoanalyse und zur Bestimmung der Wesentlichkeit, zur Ausgestaltung des Auslagerungsvertrages sowie zur Steuerung und Überwachung der Risiken von Auslagerungsvereinbarungen erweitert und präzisiert. Bei wesentlichen Auslagerungen im Auslagerungsvertrag sollen neben Informations- und Prüfungsrechten auch Zugangsrechte berücksichtigt werden. Um die zentrale Steuerung und Überwachung der Risiken von Auslagerungsvereinbarungen zu bündeln, soll jedes Institut, das Auslagerungen vornimmt, selbst einen zentralen Auslagerungsbeauftragten bestimmen. Das zentrale Auslagerungsmanagement, welches ein Institut abhängig von Art, Umfang und Komplexität der Auslagerungsaktivitäten einzurichten hat, dient der Unterstützung des Auslagerungsbeauftragten. Mit der MaRisk Novelle wurde nunmehr auch die Möglichkeit eingeräumt, ein zentrales Auslagerungsmanagement auf Gruppen- bzw. Verbundebene einzurichten.

    Einer der Bereiche, bei dem die Anpassung der MaRisk nun der Aufsichtspraxis der EZB folgt, betrifft die Regelungen zu Datenmanagement, Datenqualität und Aggregation von Risikodaten nach AT 4.3.4 MaRisk. Der zugrunde liegende BCBS 239 Standard richtet sich zwar in erster Linie an systemrelevante Institute, stellt es der zuständigen Aufsicht jedoch ausdrücklich frei, die Anforderungen unter Beachtung des Proportionalitätsprinzips auch an einen erweiterten Institutskreis zu stellen. Diesem Ansatz hat sich die BaFin angeschlossen und erwartet von den bedeutenden Instituten, dass sie ihre Datenqualität an die von der EZB gestellten Anforderungen anpassen.

    Für den Erfolg geschult – S+P Seminare MaRisk 7.0


    Was ändert sich mit den neuen MaRisk 7.0?

    Die neuen MaRisk-Anforderungen können für Banken eine Herausforderung darstellen. Um die Anforderungen zu erfüllen, müssen Banken ihre internen Prozesse und Systeme überarbeiten. Mit den MaRisk 7.0 sollen Regelungslücken und/oder Neuregelungen zu folgenden 5 Themen erfolgen:

    1. Vorgehen bei der Umsetzung der EBA-Leitlinien für die Kreditvergabe und -überwachung
    2. Direktinvestitionen in Immobilien
    3. Spezialfonds
    4. Geschäftsmodellanalyse
    5. Handel im Home-Office.

    EBA-Leitlinien für die Kreditvergabe und -überwachung

    Die Aufsicht plant eine zügigere Umsetzung durch eine stärkere Verwendung von Verweisen in den MaRisk auf die EBA-Leitlinien. Dieses Vorgehen soll bei der Umsetzung der EBA-Leitlinien für die Kreditvergabe und -überwachung Anwendung finden.

    Nationale Öffnungsklauseln und Erleichterungen sind für kleinere und mittlere Institute bei der Umsetzung der EBA-Leitlinien für die Kreditvergabe und -überwachung geplant. Damit soll dem Grundsatz der Proportionalität Rechnung getragen werden.

    Direktinvestitionen in Immobilien

    Die Berücksichtigung von Direktinvestitionen in Immobilien soll aufgrund der deutlich gestiegenen Bedeutung von Immobilieneigengeschäften mit den MaRisk 7.0 erfolgen.

    Die kreditprozessualen Anforderungen finden bei Immobilieneigengeschäften über Beteiligungen bereits Anwendung. Hier soll eine Klarstellung erfolgen, welche Regelungen der MaRisk (insbesondere BTO 1) für diese Immobilieneigengeschäfte über Beteiligungen gelten.

    Neben diesen Beteiligungsmodellen nutzen Institute zunehmend auch Direktinvestitionen. Für die ökonomisch ähnlich zu bewertenden Direktinvestitionen finden die Regelungen der MaRisk bislang keine Anwendung.

    Diese Regelungslücke soll über eine Berücksichtigung in einem neuen Abschnitt BTO 3 oder durch Ergänzungen des BTO 1 in den MaRisk 7.0 geschlossen werden.

    Geschäftsmodellanalyse

    Die Geschäftsmodellanalyse / die Nachhaltigkeit des Geschäftsmodells werden in den MaRisk bislang nicht explizit behandelt. Mit den MaRisk 7.0 sollen Klarstellungen mit dem Ziel vorgenommen werden, dass die Themen Gleichlauf von operativer Geschäftsplanung und Berichtswesen in den MaRisk verankert werden.

    Die Geschäftsmodellanalyse hat auch in der Aufsichtsarbeit hohe Bedeutung und stellt einen wichtigen Bestandteil in der SREP-Methodik dar.

    Spezialfonds: Same Counterpart – same risk.

    Die Bankenaufsicht hat folgende Lücken identifiziert:

    • Begrenzte Risikosteuerungsmöglichkeit von Spezialfonds
    • Fehlendes Auslagerungscontrolling in Zusammenhang mit Spezialfonds

    Derzeit besteht ein bankaufsichtlicher „blinder Fleck“ durch Ungleichbehandlung je nach Quelle des Geschäfts:

    • Kreditgeschäfte: marktunabhängiges Votum für Geschäfte oberhalb der Risikorelevanzgrenze erforderlich
    • Handelsgeschäfte – Direktanlagen: marktunabhängiges Votum für jedes Geschäft erforderlich
    • Handelsgeschäfte innerhalb von Spezialfonds: keine einzeladressenbezogenen kreditprozessualen Anforderungen, somit weder Risikoanalyse, noch marktunabhängiges Votum oder Kreditentscheidung derzeit erforderlich. Folglich besteht bei Spezialfonds die Gefahr der Aufsichtsarbitrage. Die derzeitige Handhabung wird als Umgehungstatbestand gewertet.

    Mit den MaRisk 7.0 soll eine grundlegende Verschärfung des Votierungsprozesses bei Spezialfonds erfolgen. Vereinfachungen sind nur noch möglich, sofern

    • Anlagen in Spezialfonds in Summe unterhalb von 5 % der Bilanzsumme liegen oder
    • die Einzelanlagen im Spezialfonds ausreichend granular sind.
    • Die ausgelagerten Dienstleistungen müssen vollständig den MaRisk-Anforderungen AT 9 an Auslagerungen entsprechen.

    Gut vorbereitet und fit für den geschäftlichen Erfolg – mit S+P Seminare MaRisk 7.0


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